Infrastructure is a vital component of our modern society. The reliability of our infrastructure is based, in part, on the stability of the ground on which it is founded and the earth with which it is built. Virtually all new infrastructure projects and land development involve modification of the ground surface topography by grading—the excavation, hauling, and placement of rock or soil material—to create building pads, roadway subgrade, and foundations for earth retention structures. Grading and earthwork are typically the least expensive and most reliable means of improving relatively shallow weak or compressible soil conditions by removal and replacement of the suspect material.